Pediatric UTI

AAP Guideline on Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months

UK NICE guideline: Urinary tract infection in children


  • For children with fever, UTI should be suspected.
  • For children at a very low risk for UTI, or greater than 3 years of age, a bag urine for urinalysis is an appropriate first step. If the urinalysis is suspicious for UTI, such as being positive for leukocyte esterase or nitrite, or if the children is not at a very low risk for UTI, then a catheterized urine sample should be obtained for urine culture prior to starting empiric antibiotics.
  • If the culture comes back negative, then antibiotics treatment covering UTI can be stopped.
  • Febrile UTI is presumed to be pyelonephritis, and should be investigated with Bladder and Renal Ultrasound. If the ultrasound shows structural abnormalities, or if the child has recurrent febrile UTIs, a VCUG should be considered, especially in younger children.